apa, m.n: an ape. (“AH-pah”)
Detail of apes at school in The Maastricht Hours. Netherlands (Liège), 1st quarter of the 14th century. British Library, Stowe MS 17, f. 109r. [bl.uk]
hrōc, m.n: a rook, a raven, a jackdaw. (“hroak”)
A mother raven flies away from her nest of five white chicks. She will not recognise them until they have grown black feathers like their father. Richard of Fournival’s Bestiaire d’Amour. France (Lorraine/Metz), first quarter of 14th century. Bodleian Library, MS. Douce 308, f. 90r. [bodley30.bodley.ox.ac.uk]
lyft-floga, m.n: a flier in the air (a dragon). (“luft-flo-ga”)
This week’s Wordhord Wednesday post is on lyftfloga, the scary ‘sky-winger’ in Beowulf. Hear me read from the poem on the Wordhord Patreon page.
A colourful dragon flying over the sea. Jacob van Maerlant’s Der Naturen Bloeme. Flanders, c. 1350. Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, KA 16, f. 104r. [bestiary.ca]
þēotan, str.v: to howl like a wolf. (“THAY-oh-tahn”)
Scenes from the Irish legend of the wolf that talked with the priest of Ulster, recorded by Gerald of Wales. England, c. 1196-1223. British Library, Royal MS 13 B VIII, fol. 17v. [bl.uk]
fugel, m.n: a bird, fowl. (“FOO-yell”)
Image from Karl Shuker’s blog [karlshuker.blogspot.co.uk]. From the Luttrell Psalter [bl.uk]: British Library, Additional 42130, f. 171v.
līg-draca, m.n: a fire-drake, dragon vomiting flames. (“LEE-DRAH-kah”)
It’s St George’s Day. I couldn’t find a medieval George fighting a fire-breathing dragon, so I’ve included a bonus image.
A miniature of George killing the dragon in the Legenda Aurea. Paris, 1382. British Library, MS Royal 19 B XVII, f. 109r. [blogs.bl.uk]
Dragon in Peraldus’s Theological Miscellany. England, 3rd quarter of the 13th century. British Library, MS Harley 3244, f. 59r. [bl.uk]
hara, m.n: a hare. (“HA-ra”)
hrīðer, n.n: horned cattle, ox, cow, heifer. (“HREE-ther”)
A grinning ox in Jacob van Maerlant’s Der Naturen Bloeme. Flanders, c. 1350. Koninklijke Bibliotheek, KB, KA 16, f. 47r. [bestiary.ca]
ūle, f.n: an owl. (“oo-leh”)
Marginal owl from a Book of Hours. France (Paris), c. 1420-1425. New York, The Morgan Library & Museum, MS M.1004, fol. 79r. [ica.themorgan.org]
swīn-hirde, m.n: a swine-herd. (“sween-hear-deh”)
Men beating down acorns to feed their pigs in the Queen Mary Psalter (1310-1320). British Library, Royal MS 2 B VII, fol. 81v. [bl.uk]